The Grand Palace is surrounded by Sanam Luang to the west, Sanam Chai to the east, Maharaj Road to the west and Thy Wang road to the south.
The white painting walls of the Grand Palace are constructed of bricks and mortar. There are a total of 17 forts, or battlements built atop the walls. A portion of the east wall forms the lower part of the eastern wall of the Sutthaisawan Prasat Throne Hall.
The Palace is divided into four areas, namely:
The Outer Zone, situated at the front of the palace on the northern side, is where various government offices are situated, including those for military officials, civil officials, the harbor department and the royal treasurely.
The Middle Zone, situated at the center of the palace, where the Phra Mahaprasart and Phra Ratchamonthien are located, was until 1925 the residence of the king, the queen, the princes, the princesses, the royal concubines, ladies-in-waiting and female officials.
The Inner Zone, at the rear of the Grand Palace includes the buildings where members of the royal family and royal attendants, as well as princes under 13 years of age used to reside.
Sanam Chai is a small lawn within the walls of the Grand Palace situated on the eastern side in front of Sala Sahathai Samakhom and near the walls of the Emerald Buddha Temple located to the north.
The Temple of the Emerald Buddha, is a royal temple situated within the Grand Palace in accordance with ancient tradition.
Sanam Luang (Phra Meru ground), located outside the walls of the Grand Palace and to its front, was copied from Ayutthaya and is used for various royal ceremonies.
The Grand Palace was the residence of the kings, queens, princes, princesses, ladies-in-waiting and officials from 1783 until 1925.